This book presents an in-depth treatment of various
power reduction and speed enhancement techniques based on multiple supply and
threshold voltages. A detailed discussion of the sources of power consumption in
CMOS circuits will be provided whilst focusing primarily on identifying the
mechanisms by which sub-threshold and gate oxide leakage currents are generated.
The authors present a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art dynamic, static
supply and threshold voltage scaling techniques and discuss the pros and cons of
supply and threshold voltage scaling techniques.
From the Back Cover
For more than four decades, the scaling of semiconductor process technologies
has revolutionized electronics applications, with complementary
metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology dominating the semiconductor
industry in recent years. The scaling of CMOS technology coupled with advanced
in circuits structures and microarchitectures have significantly increased the
performance of integrated circuits (ICs). The side-effects of these performance
and functional enhancements have traditionally been increased design complexity,
greater power consumption, and higher fabrication cost. Multi-voltage design now
plays a crucial role in allowing the industry to meet the growing customer
demand for high-performance ICs offering a wider variety of applications at a
Multi-voltage CMOS Circuit Design provides an in-depth analysis of
several new techniques for designing low-power and high-speed ICs with
particular emphasis on the approaches based on using multiple supply and
threshold voltages. Starting with a detailed overview of the evolution of IC
technologies, the authors go on to examine:
- the sources of power consumption in CMOS ICs;
- the mechanism that produce sub-threshold and gate oxide leakage currents;
- advanced supply and threshold voltage scaling techniques for lowering power
consumption and enhancing reliability;
- energy-efficient monolithic DC-DC conversion techniques for low voltage
applications such as microprocessors;
- in-depth evaluation of the potential of emerging multi-voltage circuit
techniques for sustaining the scaling trends of CMOS technologies.
A valuable text for researches and electronic engineers working in the
semiconductor technology industry, Multi-voltage CMOS Circuit Design is
also a useful reference for graduate students taking courses on advanced topics
in IC design.
About the Author Dr Volkan Kursun, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering,
University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0231, USA
Professor Dr Eby Friedman, Department of Electrical & Computer
Engineering , University of Rochester , Rochester, New York 14627-0231, USA
List of Tables.
List of Figures.
1.1 Evolution of Integrated Circuits.
1.2 Outline of the Book.
2 Sources of Power Consumption in CMOS Integrated Circuits.
2.1 Dynamic Switching Power.
2.2 Leakage Power.
2.3 Short-Circuit Power.
2.4 Static DC Power.
3 Supply and Threshold Voltage Scaling Techniques.
3.1 Dynamic Supply Voltage Scaling.
3.2 Multiple Supply Voltage CMOS.
3.3 Threshold Voltage Scaling.
3.4 Multiple Supply and Threshold Voltage CMOS.
3.5 Dynamic Supply and Threshold Voltage Scaling.
3.6 Circuits with Multiple Voltage and Clock Domains.
3.7 Chapter Summary.
4 Low Voltage Power Supplies.
4.1 Linear DC-DC Converters.
4.2 Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converters.
4.3 Switching DC-DC Converters.
4.4 Chapter Summary.
5 Analysis of Buck Converters for On-Chip Integration with a Dual Supply Voltage
5.1 Circuit Model of a Buck Converter.
5.2 Efficiency Analysis of a Buck Converter.
5.3 Simulation Results.
5.4 Chapter Summary.
6 Low Voltage Swing Monolithic DC-DC Conversion.
6.1 Circuit Model of a Low Voltage Swing Buck Converter.
6.2 Low Voltage Swing Buck Converter Analysis.
6.3 Chapter Summary.
7 High Input Voltage Step-Down DC-DC Converters for Integration in a Low
Voltage CMOS Process.
7.1 Cascode Bridge Circuits.
7.2 High Input Voltage Monolithic Switching DC-DC Converters.
7.3 Chapter Summary.
8 Signal Transfer in Integrated Circuits with Multiple Supply Voltages.
8.1 A High Speed and Low Power Voltage Interface Circuit.
8.2 Voltage Interface Circuit Simulation Results.
8.3 Experimental Results.
8.4 Chapter Summary.
9 Domino Logic with Variable Threshold Voltage Keeper.
9.1 Standard Domino Logic Circuits.
9.2 Domino Logic with Variable Threshold Voltage Keeper.
9.3 Simulation Results.
9.4 Domino Logic with Forward and Reverse Body Biased Keeper.
9.5 Chapter Summary.
10 Subthreshold Leakage Current Characteristics of Dynamic Circuits.
10.1 State Dependent Subthreshold Leakage Current Characteristics.
10.2 Noise Immunity.
10.3 Power and Delay Characteristics in the Active Mode.
10.4 Dual Threshold Voltage CMOS Technology.
10.5 Chapter Summary.
11 Sleep Switch Dual Threshold Voltage Domino Logic with Reduced Standby
11.1 Previously Published Sleep Mode Circuit Techniques.
11.2 Dual Threshold Voltage Domino Logic Employing Sleep Switches.