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Wiley 

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2011 ³â 8 ¿ù 

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To address the modeling and control of smart grid renewable energy system into electric power systems, this book integrates three areas of electrical engineering: power system engineering, control systems engineering and power electronics The approach to the integration of these three areas differs from classical methods. Due to complexity of this task, the author has decided to present the basic concepts, and then present a simulation test bed in matlab to use these concepts to solve a basic problem in development of smart grid energy system. Therefore, each chapter has three parts: first a problem of integration is stated and its importance is described. Then, the mathematical model of the same problem is formulated. Next, the solution steps are outlined. This step is followed by developing a matlab simulation test bed. Each chapter ends with a set of problems and projects. The book is intended be used as textbook for instruction or by researchers. This book can be used as undergraduate text for both electrical and mechanical engineers. The prerequisite for the course is a course in fundamental of electrical engineering.
The first guide to the Design and modeling of smart grid energy systems
As we begin the second decade of the 21st century and approach the problem of global warming, we need to accept a fundamental change in how we create, generate, distribute, and use energy. Creating sustainable energy, thereby reducing or eliminating our carbon footprint and efficiently utilizing available energy resources, is of vital importance. Smart grid renewable energy systems are a revolutionary concept in electrical engineering designed to allow end users control over their individual energy needs by providing them with the means to create, maintain, and distribute energy.
Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems uniquely addresses the design and modeling of smart grid renewable energy systems by integrating three areas of electrical engineering: power system engineering, power electronics, and electric energy conversion systems—with an approach that differs from classic methods. After a brief overview of energy and its evolution to electric power, the author introduces the basic concepts behind power grids, then takes an indepth look at the modeling of converters in power grid distributed generation systems and the design of a smart power grid system. Microgrid photovoltaic and wind energy systems are addressed as renewable energy sources. Load flow analysis of power grids and microgrids, and power grid fault studies are the subjects of the text''s final chapters.
In each chapter, Dr. Keyhani presents a key engineering problem and subsequently formulates a mathematical model of the problem followed by a simulation testbed in MATLAB
Ali Keyhani, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The Ohio State University. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and a recipient of The Ohio State University, College of Engineering Research Award for 1989, 1999, and 2003. He has worked for companies such as Columbus and Southern Electric Power Company, HewlettPackard Co., Foster Wheeler Engineering, and TRW. He has performed research and consulting for American Electric Power, TRW Control, Liebert, Delphi Automotive Systems, General Electric, General Motors, and Ford. Dr. Keyhani has authored many articles in IEEE Transactions in Energy Conversion, Power Electronics, and Power Systems Engineering.

FOREWORD.
PREFACE.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
1 ENERGY AND CIVILIZATION.
1.1 Introduction.
1.2 Fossil Fuel.
1.3 Depletion of Energy Resources.
1.4 An Alternative Energy Source: Nuclear Energy.
1.5 Global Warming.
1.6 The Age of the Electric Power System.
1.7 Green and Renewable Energy Sources.
1.8 Energy Units and Conversions.
1.9 Estimating the Cost of Energy.
1.10 Conclusion.
2 POWER GRIDS.
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Electric Power Grids.
2.3 The Basic Concepts of Power Grids.
2.4 Load Models.
2.5 Transformers in Electric Power Grids.
2.6 Modeling a Microgrid System.
2.7 Modeling ThreePhase Transformers.
2.8 Tap Changing Transformers.
2.9 Modeling Transmission Lines.
3 MODELING CONVERTERS IN MICROGRID POWER SYSTEMS.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 SinglePhase DC/AC Inverters with Two Switches.
3.3 SinglePhase DC/AC Inverters with a FourSwitch Bipolar Switching Method.
3.3.1 Pulse Width Modulation with Unipolar Voltage Switching for a SinglePhase FullBridge Inverter.
3.4 ThreePhase DC/AC Inverters.
3.5 Pulse Width Modulation Methods.
3.6 Analysis of DC/AC ThreePhase Inverters.
3.7 Microgrid of Renewable Energy Systems.
3.8 The DC/DC Converters in Green Energy Systems.
3.9 Rectifiers.
3.10 Pulse Width Modulation Rectifiers.
3.11 A ThreePhase Voltage Source Rectifier Utilizing Sinusoidal PWM Switching.
3.12 The Sizing of an Inverter for Microgrid Operation.
3.13 The Sizing of a Rectifi er for Microgrid Operation.
3.14 The Sizing of DC/DC Converters for Microgrid Operation.
4 SMART POWER GRID SYSTEMS.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Power Grid Operation.
4.3 The Vertically and MarketStructured Utility.
4.4 Power Grid Operations Control.
4.5 LoadFrequency Control.
4.6 Automatic Generation Control.
4.7 Operating Reserve Calculation.
4.8 The Basic Concepts of a Smart Power Grid.
4.9 The Load Factor.
4.10 A CyberControlled Smart Grid.
4.11 Smart Grid Development.
4.12 Smart Microgrid Renewable Green Energy Systems.
4.13 A Power Grid Steam Generator.
4.14 Power Grid Modeling.
5 MICROGRID SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS.
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 The Solar Energy Conversion Process: Thermal Power Plants.
5.3 Photovoltaic Power Conversion.
5.4 Photovoltaic Materials.
5.5 Photovoltaic Characteristics.
5.6 Photovoltaic Effi ciency.
5.7 The Design of Photovoltaic Systems.
5.8 The Modeling of a Photovoltaic Module.
5.9 The Measurement of Photovoltaic Performance.
5.10 The Maximum Power Point of a Photovoltaic Array.
5.11 A Battery Storage System.
5.12 A Storage System Based on a SingleCell Battery.
5.13 The Energy Yield of a Photovoltaic Module and the Angle of Incidence.
5.14 The State of Photovoltaic Generation Technology.
5.15 The Estimation of Photovoltaic Module Model Parameters.
6 MICROGRID WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS.
6.1 Introduction.
6.2 Wind Power.
6.3 Wind Turbine Generators.
6.4 The Modeling of Induction Machines.
6.5 Power Flow Analysis of an Induction Machine.
6.6 The Operation of an Induction Generator.
6.7 Dynamic Performance.
6.8 The DoublyFed Induction Generator.
6.9 Brushless DoublyFed Induction Generator Systems.
6.10 VariableSpeed Permanent Magnet Generators.
6.11 A VariableSpeed Synchronous Generator.
6.12 A VariableSpeed Generator with a Converter Isolated from the Grid.
7 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS OF POWER GRIDS AND MICROGRIDS.
7.1 Introduction.
7.2 Voltage Calculation in Power Grid Analysis.
7.3 The Power Flow Problem.
7.4 Load Flow Study as a Power System Engineering Tool.
7.5 Bus Types.
7.6 General Formulation of the Power Flow Problem.
7.7 The Bus Admittance Model.
7.8 The Bus Impedance Matrix Model.
7.9 Formulation of the Load Flow Problem.
7.10 The Gauss–Seidel YBus Algorithm.
7.11 The Gauss–Seidel ZBus Algorithm.
7.12 Comparison of the YBus and ZBus Power Flow Solution Methods.
7.13 The Synchronous and Asynchronous Operation of Microgrids.
7.14 An Advanced Power Flow Solution Method: The Newton–Raphson Algorithm.
7.15 The Fast Decoupled Load Flow Algorithm.
7.16 Analysis of a Power Flow Problem.
8 POWER GRID AND MICROGRID FAULT STUDIES.
8.1 Introduction.
8.2 Power Grid Fault Current Calculation.
8.3 Symmetrical Components.
8.4 Sequence Networks for Power Generators.
8.5 The Modeling of a Photovoltaic Generating Station.
8.6 Sequence Networks for Balanced ThreePhase Transmission Lines.
8.7 Ground Current Flow in Balanced ThreePhase Transformers.
8.8 Zero Sequence Network.
8.9 Fault Studies.
APPENDIX A COMPLEX NUMBERS.
APPENDIX B TRANSMISSION LINE AND DISTRIBUTION TYPICAL DATA.
APPENDIX C ENERGY YIELD OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE AND ITS ANGLE OF INCIDENCE.
APPENDIX D WIND POWER.
INDEX. 
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